The Ketogenic (Keto) diet is a high-fat, medium-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that forces the body to use fats for fuel instead of carbohydrates. In a Standard American Diet (SAD), the consumption of high amounts carbohydrates are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body for energy. When eating a high carbohydrate diet the body uses the glucose to provide energy to the brain and our cells. On a Keto diet very few carbohydrates are eaten and, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. As our bodies adapt to a Keto Diet, the ketone bodies replace glucose as an energy source for the brain and our cells.
Since glucose is being used as a primary energy source on a high carbohydrate diet, your body does not need to use its fat stores for energy. Instead, your body continues to use glucose for energy, and whatever glucose it does not need for energy is turned into stored body fat. By contrast, a Keto diet greatly reduces your intake of carbs and your body is moved into a state of Ketosis.
When our bodies are in a state of Ketosis, they adapt and learn to burn our stored body fat for fuel instead of glucose. Over time as our bodies become more efficient at using ketones for fuel we will see several health benefits such as weight loss, reduced appetite, reduced inflammation, improved cholesterol, improvement (and possibly elimination) of Type 2 Diabetes, and increased mental clarity and focus.